Online teaching techniques - annotated bibliography

“An Exploratory Study into the Efficacy of Learning Objects”
Farha, Nicholas W. (2009): “An Exploratory Study into the Efficacy of Learning Objects”, The Journal of Educators Online, Volume 6, Number 1, Indiana State University, retrieved on November 18, 2009, from
http://www.thejeo.com/Archives/Volume6Number2/FarhaPaper.pdf (32 pages).

This research is a contribute to investigate the effectiveness of learning objects on instructional technology, by comparing learning outcomes using a learning object with outcomes using a traditional textbook-based method of instruction.

According to the author, a learning object is “a subject matter-specific learning resource or item of content, generally understood to be digital and multimedia-based, which can be reused and–in some cases–combined with other learning objects to form larger pieces of instruction”.

Some conclusions are that learning objects are compatible with the continuously growing world of web-based distance education; that the digital nature of learning objects makes them easily deliverable via the Internet, which lends itself well to the distance education paradigm; and that professional development is an important component in the successful implementation of this instructional technology.

“Student Perceptions of Technology-Based Teaching Methods”

Kline, Jennifer., Van Gundy, Karen. and Liu, Hope (2003): "Student Perceptions of Technology-Based Teaching Methods", Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, retrieved on November 18, 2009, from

Some data from undergraduate students are examined to see their perceptions of technology use in the classroom. Multivariate quantitative analyses are conducted as to consider student
perceptions about the effectiveness of instructional technology while accounting for differences in math and computer anxiety levels at the beginning and end of the course instruction period.

The present study is based on data collected in fall 2002 for a quasi-experiment conducted in
three undergraduate sociology classes at the University of New Hampshire. Two of the classes were sections of the same introductory statistics course, and the other class was a course titled "Drugs and Society."

The results obtained with this methodology were:

“Qualitative results from the open-ended responses collected thus far show that students express mixed feelings over the use of technology in the classroom. Reactions ranged from overtly negative to enthusiastically positive.”

“Respondent comments suggest that a technology disparity on campuses may occur between residential students and commuters. While residential students have ready access to the latest university systems compatible technology, commuters can be at a disadvantage.”

“Another aspect that emerged from open-ended questions was a sense of alienation that may develop from relying on technology. Some students prefer face-to-face interaction with the teacher and fellow students and, if they aren’t technologically savvy, may fall behind in the course without one-on-one explanation and instruction. Moreover, as one student noted, more introverted students who are unwilling to ask questions or participate in class discussions are enabled to rely on communicating via technology and may be less likely to develop communication skills.”

“Helpful Hints on Effective Online Teaching: Managing the Online Classroom”

In webpage of De Oracle @ UMUC, Online Learning Magazine for UMUC Faculty – Center for Support of Instruction, retrieved on November 18, 2009, from

UMUC faculty share their best practices, strategies and techniques by presenting suggestions in its website. This time the discussions with seasoned faculty members are about the success for effective online teaching, the approaches for carrying the momentum generated at the beginning of the class throughout the duration of the semester.
The main themes are study groups strategies, effective communication, constructive feedback and managing the online classroom.

“Online Teaching and Learning: Faculty Reflections”

Paper presented by Wines, Joan (California Lutheran University), Bianchi, Julius (California Lutheran University) at the ELEVENTH INTERNATIONAL WORLD WIDE WEB CONFERENCE, retrieved on November 18, 2009, from

This paper is based on faculty perceptions of technology's potential for improving teaching and learning in their courses. After developing 29 online projects at CLU, the authors conducted post-project evaluations and interviews to determine faculty impressions of the projects' effects.

Some conclusions are that delivering course content online prompted teachers to improve their teaching strategies (improved teaching) and by posting online examples of students work, many students begun to self-critique their work after comparing with the samples (improved learning). Teachers can display and discuss the work in class, and students who follow the discussion are engaged because they have had to respond to the same assignment.


I think that the development of learning communities online necessitates the formation of collaborative learning teams who should create online education programs that include efficient teaching and learning through computer mediated communication (CMC). To do so, quality interactive communication must be fostered and developed through the facilitator of the course – the online teacher aware of technological formats.adapted to pedagogical principles of teaching and learning.

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